Import of Radiation Phenomena of Electrons and Therapeutic Low-Level Laser in Regard to the Mitochondrial Energy Transfer

LUTZ WILDEN, M.D.,1 anti RAINER KARTHEIN, Ph.D.2

ABSTRACT

Objective: The authors describe a consistent theoretical model of the cellular energy transfer (respiratory chain) by taking into consideration the radiation phenomena of electrons and therapeutic low level laser. Summary Background Data: Biochemical models of the cellular energy transfer regard the classical corpuscular aspect of electrons as the responsible energy carriers, thereby ignoring the wave-particle dualism of the electron' and the import of radiation energy in this process. Methods: The authors show the influence of radiation phenomena on the cellular energy transfer, explaining consistently some of the intermediate steps of this complex process. Results: Because of the inherent wave-particle dualism of the electrons, it is appropriate to regard radiation phenomena to explain the cellular energy transfer. The classical biochemical models use only the particle part of the electrons as energy carriers The connection between energy transport by radiation and the order in structures may be understood if, for instance, structurally bound energy is released during the dissolution of structures (oxidation of foodstuffs) or is again manifested (final reduction of oxygen to water). With attention to the energy values relevant for the respiratory chain, the import of electromagnetic radiation of characteristic ranges of wavelengths on the cellular energy transfer becomes evident. Depending on it's wavelength, electromagnetic radiation in the form of light can stimulate macromolecules and can initiate conformation formation changes in proteins or can transfer energy to electrons. Low level laser from the red and the near infrared region corresponds well with the characteristic energy and absorption levels of the relevant components of the respiratory chain. This laser stimulation vitalises the cell by increasing the mitochondrial ATP (adenosine-tri-phosphate)-production. Conclusions: With regard to radiation phenomena and its enhanced electron flow in the cellular energy transfer (respiratory chain), it is possible to explain the experimentally found increase of ATP-production by means of low-level laser light on a cellular level. Intense research for this biostimulative effect is still necessary.
 
Journal Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery
Volume 16, Number 3,1998
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Pp. 159 165
 
Some extracts from, and links to Dr Lutz Wildens web page (great graphics, worth a quick)

 
 

PHOTOBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF RADIATION FROM LASERS

Kendric C Smith

Dept of Radiation Oncology,University of Stanford, CA, USA.

Low level laser radiation therapy is very effective in a number of clinical situations (e.g., pain relief, wound healing, sports medicine), but the photobiological basis of this therapy is not well understood. Since both visible and infrared radiations have been shown to be beneficial in such therapies, (but in most cases the relative effects of these two radiations have not been compared qualitatively), and since these two radiations differ in their photochemical and photophysical properties, how can they produce similar results clinically? I propose a modification of the model of Karu (1988) to explain this. In her model, visible light produces photochemical changes in photoreceptors in the mitochondria, which alters metabolism, which leads to signal transduction in other parts of the cell (including membranes), which finally leads to photoresponse (i.e., bioactivation). While visible light probably starts the cascade of metabolic events at the level of the respiratory chain of the mitochondria through photochemical events, I propose that because of the photochemical and photophysical properties of infrared radiation, that radiation starts the cascade of metabolic events by photophysical effects on the membranes (probably the Ca++ channels). Action spectra are needed to quantitate the relative effectiveness of the different wavelengths of the incident radiation, and establish the optimum conditions (i.e. wavelength and dose) for a particular therapy.

898-5901/91/010010019- copyright 1991 by John Wiley & Sons. Ltd


TOWARDS AN EXPLANATION OF VISIBLE AND INFRARED LASER INDUCED STIMULATION AND DAMAGE OF CELL CULTURES

H. Friedmann and R. Lubart*

Department of Chemistry. *Department of Physics Bar-llan University Ramat Can 5210() Israel

A general mechanisism is proposed, capable of accounting for both the stimulating action of visible and infrared lasers on cell cultures, at low laser doses, and the damaging action at larger doses. Laser irradiation is assumed to intensity the formation of a trans-membrame electrochemical proton gradient in mitochondria. This enhances ATP production which activates the Ca2+ pumps depleting the Ca2+ concentration in the cytoplasm and increasing the Ca2+ concentration gradient of the surrounding medium relative to the cytoplasm. This triggers enhanced Ca2' influx into the ceils via the Ca2+ ion channels of' the cell membrane. In addition. with sufficient irradiation, the proton-motive force (pmf) due to the proton gradient, causes more Ca2+ to he released from the mitochondria by an antiport' process. The additional calcium transported into the cytoplasm, together with other factors controlled by the pmf triggers mitosis and enhances ceil proliferation. At higher laser doses, too much Ca2+ is released. This causes hyperactivity of Ca2 -ATPase and exhausts the ATP reserves of the cell. The nature of the photoacceptors and possible ways in which the visible and infrared laser energy is converted by the photoacceptors are discussed.

0X98-590 1/92/0 10039-04$05.00 copyright 1992 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

 


IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS LIGHT...
The Mechanisms of Light Therapy

Dr PA Reynolds, Lecturer in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery King's College School of Medicine & Densitry , London, England.

Phylogenetically light has played an important part in cellular processes such as the circadian rhythm and vitamin D synthesis (Wurtman et al, 1985). It has been harnessed since ancient times in heliotherapy and more recently as Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) (Moore & Calderhead, 1991). But what are the mechanisms to support the many of claims of efficacy of LLLT?

Several investigations have confirmed the essentially non-thermal effect of LLLT (Reynolds et al, 1984). There is now much evidence of cellular and subcellular mechanisms (Dyson, 1990) These and be divided into three categories:
(i) Subcellular biochemical effects,
(ii) Membrane changes and,
(iii)Mediator effects.


The work of Tina Karu has been pivotal in the understanding of the respiratory chain changes as a result of LLLT. Young et al (1991) have convincingly shown evidence of membrane changes by alteration in the calcium uptake of irradiated macrophages. Mediators such as growth factors have an important role in wound healing in intercellular communication and evidence of their release, influenced by LLLT has been demonstrated by Young et al (1989). Nervous transmission can be modified by LLLT and Bradley and Reynolds (1994) showed in a review of 100 cases of painful oral conditions treated with LLLT, that a good improvement was seen in nearly 60%. This appears to refute claims of a purely placebo effect.
There is still much work to be done to elucidate more fully the underlying cellular effects resulting from LLLT. Even high powered surgical lasers will inevitably produce a zone of low power surrounding the field of operation and this may explain the favourable healing seen compared to similar procedures performed with a scalpel (Basu et al,1988). However, on a note of caution, it is well known that some wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum e.g. UVB can be positively harmful. Cellular proliferation seen at other wavelengths maybe undesirable in a neoplastic field, therefore a risk;benefit analysis must always be made before using LLLT (Reynolds, 1994).

Claims of little or no effect of LLLT may be attributable to using the wrong laser for the wrong condition with the wrong parameters and for not long enough.


Dr PA Reynolds, Lecturer in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery King's College School of Medicine & Densitry

References

Basu MK, Frame JW, Rhys Evans PH. Wound healing following partial glossectomy using a CO2 laser, diathermy and scalpel, a histological study in rats. J Laryngology & Otology. 1988:102(4):322-7.

Bradley PF, Reynolds PA. Low reactive level laser therapy in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Review of 100 cases [abstract]. Laser Therapy 1994;6:67.

Dyson M. Cellular and subcellular aspects of laser therapy. In:Ohshiro T & Calderhead G, editors. Progress in Laser Therapy. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester 1990;221-224.

Karu Tl Photobiology of low power laser therapy, In:Letokov VS et a/, editors. Laser Science Technology, an International Handbook, Vol 8, Harwood Academic Publishers, London 1989

Moore K, Calderhead G. The clinical application of low incident power density 830nm GaAlAs diode laser radiation in the therapy of chronic intractable pain: A historical and optoelectronic rationale and clinical review. J Optoelectronics 1991;6:503-520.

Reynolds PA, Boyd EGCA, Dyson M, Dover R. A thermal evaluation of low level laser therapy [abstract]. Laser Therapy 1994;6.

Reynolds PA, Huggon AM, Boyd EGCA, Dover R, Kirby NG. The safety of low level laser therapy - a clinical trial on forearm skin [abstract]. Accident and Emergency Medicine, 19g4;11 Sup 1):27.

Wurtman RJ, Baum MJ, Potts JR. The medical and biological effects of light. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 1985;453.

Young S, Dyson M, Bolton P. Effect,of light on calcium uptake by macrophages. Laser Therapy, 1991;3:1-5.

Young S, Dyson M, Diamantopolous C:. Macrophage responsiveness to light therapy. Lasers in Surg.Med. 1989;9497-505

 


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